1.高中英语语法通霸句子结构成分分析主语谓语宾语定语状语补语

发布时间:2021-10-16 15:02:59

高中英语语法通霸 1. 句子结构成分分析 主语谓语宾语定语状语补语定语

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英语的句子成分主要有六种:即主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语和补语。 (可以熟记为: 主谓宾,定状补)除了这六种主要成分之外,还有“表语”和“同位语”的说法。但表语和系动 词一起作谓语,因此划分成分时,划分在谓语上。同位语分为主语同位语和宾语同位语, 属于主语或宾语的一部分。 考点1. 划分句子成分时的常用符号 英语中划分句子成分的符号 主语 谓语 宾语 状语 补语 在下面画直线 在下面画曲线 在下面画双横线 下面为短横线 (短横线使我们想到短木桩,木桩撞(状)钟) 上一短横,下一短横(下一短横好像是为了弥补上面短横间的空隙)

定语 在下面画虚线 (一行点使我们想到一排钉子,“钉”谐音为“定语”的“定”)

同位语 上下双曲线(都有曲折,上下位置基本相同) 考点1. 主语 主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首,通常由名词性的词来充当。 可以作主语的词性或语法结构: 1. 名词 2. 代词 3. 数词 4. 不定式 5. 动名词 6. 主语从句等表示。 7. 名词化的形容词(如 the rich) 在英语中,形容词、副词和介词短语是不能作主语的。如果它们在句首时,句子可能 是倒装句,真正的主语在后面。 On the desk are some books. (主语是 books,所以用 are) Down jumps the boy. (主语是 the boy,所以用 jumps ) Gone are the days. (主语是 the days,所以用 are) 练*1. 在下面句子的主语下面画横线,并说出由什么充当。 1. During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. 2. We often speak English in class. 3. One-third of the students in this class are girls. 4. To swim in the river is a great pleasure. 5. Smoking does harm to the health. 6. The rich should help the poor. 7. When we are going to have English test has not been decided. 8. It is necessary to master a foreign language. 9. That he isn’t at home is not true. 10. There comes the bus. 11. Beyond the village lies a small village. 12. Now comes your turn.
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考点2. 谓语 谓语由动词充当,说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。谓语的构成如下: A. 简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如: He practices running every morning. He reads newspapers every day. B. 复合谓语: ① 由情态动词或其他助动词加动词构成。如: You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. My sister is crying over there. I have been waiting for you all the time. I would stay at home all day. Has he come back? He didn’t attend the meeting yesterday. ② 由系动词加表语构成。系动词不能单独作谓语,要和表语一起作谓语。如: We are students. Your idea sounds great. 考点3. 表语 表语多是形容词, 用以说明主语的身份、 特征和状态, 它一般位于系动词 (如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定 式、动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。 练*2. 画出下列句中的表语,并说明由什么充当。 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Our teacher of English is an American. Is it yours? The weather has turned cold. The speech is exciting. Three times seven is twenty-one. His job is to teach English.

7. His hobby(爱好)is playing football. 8. The machine must be under repairs. 9. The truth is that he has never been abroad. 考点4. 宾语 宾语由名词性的词充当,表示动作的对象或承受者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面。 宾语分为动词宾语和介词宾语。 练*3. 画出下列句中的宾语, 并说明由什么充当。 1. They planted many trees yesterday. 2. (How many dictionaries do you have?) I have five. 3. They helped the old with their housework yesterday.

4. I wanted to buy a car.
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5. I enjoy listening to popular music. 6. I think(that)he is fit for his office. 考点5. 宾语补足语 宾语补足语和宾语构成逻辑上的主谓关系。换句话说,在意思上,宾语相 当于宾补的主语。 带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make 等)+宾语+宾补。 宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。 练*4. 用下划线画出下列句中的宾语补足语,并指出是什么词充当,同时体 会宾补和宾语之间的逻辑关系。 1. His father named him Dongming. 2. They painted their boat white. 3. Let the fresh air in. 4. You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. 5. We saw her entering the room. 6. We found everything in the lab in good order. 7. We will soon make our city what your city is now. 8. I want your homework done on time. 考点6. 主补 对主语的补充。含有宾语补足语的句子在变成被动语态,宾语作主语时, 原来的宾补就成了主语补足语。 He was elected monitor. She was found singing in the next room. He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson. 考点7. 定语 定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子,汉语中常用 “……的”表示。定语通常位于被修饰的成分前。 在英语中,许多情况下,定语是放在所修饰词后面的,这点与汉语*惯不 同, 也是许多同学不能读懂长句的主要原因。 定语后置常见的有以下几种情况: A. 副词用作定语一般要后置。 People there are very friendly. (那儿的人们) He didn’t like the man downstairs. (楼下的那个人) B. 形容词短语作定语一般放在所修饰词之后。 单个形容词作定语一般放在所修饰词之前, 而形容词短语作定语一般放在所修 饰词之后。
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The next man is a scientist. The man next to me is a scientist.(我旁边的那个人) C. 介词短语作定语时要后置。 The boy under the tree is Tom.(树下的那个男孩) The tallest boy in our class is John.(我们班最高的那个男孩) D. 现在分词短语、过去分词短语、动词不定式作定语常后置。 I have something to say. (直译:我有要说的话) The boy crying over there is my classmate. (在那边哭的那个男孩) The house built last year is impressive. (去年建的那座房子) 练*5. 口头翻译下列句子,用下划线标出定语部分,留意定语的位置,并 说明定语是由什么词性或结构充当。 1. The letter on the desk is for Mr. Wu. 2. The woman with a baby in her arms is his mother. 3. We need a place twice larger than this one. 4. She carried a basket full of eggs. 5. It’s a book worth no more than one dollar. 6. It’s a city far from the coast. 7. He has money enough to buy a car. 8. The man downstairs was trying to sleep. 9. There are lots of places of interest needing repairing in our city. 10. Tigers belonging to meat-eating animals feed on meat. 11. A boy calling himself John wanted to see you. 12. He picked up a wallet lying on the ground on the way back home. 13. There are many clothes to be washed. 14. Most of the singers invited to the party were from America. 15. Then the great day came when he was to march past the palace in the team. 考点8. 状语 修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子, 说明动作或状态特征的句子成分, 叫作状语。 He writes carefully. He walks slowly. (认真地写,慢慢地走,修饰动词用副词,作状语) This material is environmentally friendly. (修饰形容词用副词,作状语)
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He runs very slowly. (修饰副词 slowly, 因此 very 是副词,作状语) Unfortunately, he lost all of his money. (修饰整个句子用副词,作状语) A. 几个并列状语的先后顺序:方式→地点→时间 一个句中有几个并列状语时,其顺序较灵活,但一般是:方式→地点→时间。 如: I found a lost pen outside our school yesterday morning. He was walking slowly outside the park at that moment. B. 英语中时间状语、地点状语的排列一般是从小到大 先写时间,再写上/下午,再写星期几,再写几月几号。最后写几几年。 I invited him to watch a movie at 5 p.m. on Thursday, August 28th, 2015. I was born at 6 a.m., March 16, 2000. He lives at 1120 Green Street, London. C. 频度副词 often, always, usually, sometimes, never 等在句中要放在情态动词、 系 动词、助动词之后, 实义动词之前。 You can never tell what he will do. He is often late. He is always helping others. He often came late. D. 状语按意义分类 在句子成分中,主语、谓语、宾语、定语、表语、补语都比较好辨认,如 果这几个成分都不是,那很可能就是状语了。因此,状语的种类很多,可以表 示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、程度、条件、方式和让步等。 练*6. 指出下列画线部分属于什么状语。

1.How about meeting again at six? 2.Mr. Smith lives on the third floor. 3.Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain. 4.She put the eggs into the basket with great care. 5.She came in with a dictionary in her hand. 6.In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder. 7.To make his dream come true, Tom becomes very interested in business.
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8.The boy needs a pen very much. 9.The boy really needs a pen. 10. He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. 11. She works very hard though she is old. 12. I am taller than he is. 13. I shall go there if it doesn’t rain. 14. On Sundays, there is no student in the classroom. 15. Having to finish his homework, the boy needs a pen. 考点9. 同位语 同位语是在名词或代词之后的并列名词或代词,对前者加以说明,*乎于 后置定语。如: We students should study hard. (students 是 we 的同位语,都是指同一批“学 生”) It’s good to us students. 练*7. 画出下列句中的同位语。

1. The young man, my brother, works in the office. 2. Our English teacher, Mrs. Wang, often helps us with study. 3. They, some railway workers, are busy repairing the train.

I. 单句改错 根据所学主语相关内容,改正下列句中的错误。 1. Beyond the mountains lie a small village. 2. Gone is the days when I had to go to school on foot. 3. Play basketball is my favorite sport. 4. Give up English is not an option. 5. By doing part-time jobs can help them gain social experience. 6. Without a friend will feel lonely. II. 语法填空(每空至多填三词) 7. They planned______(take) two days off next week. 8. He practiced ______ (speak) English every day. 9. Here ______(be) your books. 10. On the wall ______ (hang) two pictures.
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III.

写作技能提升

A. 注意句子主语的形式。 11. 在我看来,早睡早起将对我们的健康有好处。 (in my opinion, get up early, go to bed early, do a lot of good to, our health) 12. 他这次考试不及格使他不高兴。 (he failed the exam, make, upset) 13. 在那两座高楼之间,矗立着我们教学楼。 (between the two tall buildings, stand, teaching building) 14. 我们现在正在学的知识对我们将来的生活和工作都很有帮助。 (what we are learning now, be of great help to, our life and work, in the future) B. 用形容词作后置定语。 15. 你认识 Tom 旁边的那个人吗?(know, next to) 16. 尽 早 把他 送 到距你 家 最* 的 医院 。 ( send…to, nearest to, as soon as possible) 17. 我们有一个能容下 3000 学生用餐的餐厅。 (dining hall, large enough, hold) C. 注意状语的顺序。 18. 那时他正在教室内认真地写作业。 (do his homework, in the classroom, carefully, at that moment) 19. 上周日我们在校园内栽了很多树。 (plant lots of trees, in the schoolyard) 20. 他昨天在演讲比赛中表现得异常优秀。 ( perform incredibly well, speech contest) D. 注意频度副词的位置。QQ329950885 21. 22. 23. 我永远不会忘记他那天对我讲的话。 (will, forget, what he told me, never) 我经常去那家超市。 (frequently, the supermarket) 他总是帮助别人。 (always, helping)

24. 我们什么时候都不能那样对待老人。 ( never, treat an old man like that, should) 25. 活到老,学到老。 (one, never, too old to learn)

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答案:

练*1.

在下面句子的主语下面画横线,并说出由什么充当。

1. During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. (名词) 2. We often speak English in class.(代词) 3. One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词) 4. To swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式短语) 5. Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词) 6. The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词) 7. When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.(主语从句) 8. It is necessary to master a foreign language.(it 作形式主语,真正的主语为后 面的不定式) 9. That he isn’t at home is not true. (主语从句, that 不能省略) 10. There comes the bus. (副词不能作主语,本句为倒装句,名词 the bus 作主 语) 11. Beyond the village lies a small village. (介词短语不能作主语,主语是后面 的名词短语) 12. Now comes your turn. (副词不能作主语,主语是后面的名词)

练*2. 画出下列句中的表语,并说明由什么充当。 1. Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) 2. Is it yours?(代词) 3. The weather has turned cold.(形容词) 4. The speech is exciting.(分词/形容词,这样的分词已形容词化了) 5. Three times seven is twenty-one.(数词) 6. His job is to teach English.(不定式) 7. His hobby(爱好)is playing football.(动名词) 8. The machine must be under repairs.(介词短语) 9. The truth is that he has never been abroad.(从句) 练*3. 画出下列句中的宾语, 并说明由什么充当。 1. They planed many trees yesterday.(名词)
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2. (How many dictionaries do you have?) I have five.(数词) 3. They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容词) 4. I wanted to buy a car.(不定式短语) 5. I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语) 6. I think that he is fit for his office.(宾语从句) 练*4. 用下划线画出下列句中的宾语补足语,并指出是什么词充当。 1. His father named him Dongming.(名词) 2. They painted their boat white.(形容词) 3. Let the fresh air in.(副词) 4. You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.(不定式短语) 5. We saw her entering the room.(现在分词) 6. We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词短语) 7. We will soon make our city what your city is now.(从句) 8. I want your homework done on time.(过去分词短语) 练*5. 口头翻译下列句子,用下划线标出定语部分,留意定语的位置,并说明 定语是由什么词性或结构充当。 1. The letter on the desk is for Mr. Wu. 桌子上的那封信是给吴先生的。 (介词短语作后置定语) 2. The woman with a baby in her arms is his mother . 怀里抱婴儿的那个妇女是他的母亲。 (with 的复合结构作后置定语) 3. We need a place twice larger than this one. 我们需要一个比这个地方大两倍的地方。 (形容词短语作后置定语) 4. She carried a basket full of eggs. 她提着一个装满鸡蛋的篮子。 (形容词短语作后置定语) 5. It’s a book worth no more than one dollar. 那是一本仅值一美元的书。 (形容词短语作后置定语) 6. It’s a city far from the coast. 它是一座距海岸很远的城市。 (形容词短语作后置定语) 7. He has money enough to buy a car. 他有足够能买一辆车的钱。 (形容词短语作后置定语) 8. The man downstairs was trying to sleep. 楼下的那个人正在尽力睡觉。 (副词作后置定语) 9. There are lots of places of interest needing repairing in our city. 在我们城市有许多需要维修的名胜。 (现在分词短语作后置定语)
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10. Tigers belonging to meat-eating animals feed on meat. 属于食肉动物的老虎以肉为食。 (现在分词短语作后置定语) 11. A boy calling himself John wanted to see you. 一个自称为 John 的男孩想见你。 (现在分词短语作后置定语) 12. He picked up a wallet lying on the ground on the way back home. 在回家的路上,他捡起一个躺在路上的钱包。(现在分词短语作后置定语; 副词短语作后置定语) 13. There are many clothes to be washed. 有许多要洗的衣服。 意译为: 有许多衣服要洗。 (动词不定式短语作后置定语) 14. Most of the singers invited to the party were from America. 大多数被邀请参加派对的歌手都来自美国。 (过去分词短语作后置定语) 15. Then the great day came when he was to march past the palace in the team. 接着,他要列队游行经过宫殿的那一天到了。(定语从句修饰 the great day) 练*6. 指出下列画线部分属于什么状语。 1. 时间状语 4. 方式状语 7. 目的状语 2. 地点状语 3. 原因状语 5. 伴随状语 6. 目的状语 8. 程度状语 9. 程度状语

10. 结果状语 11. 让步状语 12. 比较状语 13. 条件状语 14. 时间状语;地点状语 15. 原因状语 练*7. 画出下列句中的同位语。QQ329950885 1. The young man, my brother, works in the office. 2. Our English teacher, Mrs Wang often helps us with study. 3. They, some railway workers, are busy repairing the train.

1. 把 lie 改为 lies; 介词短语不能作主语,主语是后面的 a small village。 2. 把 is 改为 are;句子的主语是 the days。 3. Play 改为 Playing;在这里指经常打篮球,要用动名词作主语。 4. Give 改为 To give;在做决定时,放弃英语不是一个选择。give up 指具体的 某一次。 5. 去掉 By,doing 改为 Doing; 介词短语不能作主语。 6. will 前加 we。介词短语不能作主语。 7. to take; plan 后跟动词不定式作宾语。
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8. speaking;practice 后跟动名词作宾语。 9. are;副词 here 不能作主语,主语是后面的 books。 10. hang;介词短语不能作主语,倒装句,主语是 pictures。 11. In my opinion, getting up early and going to bed early will do a lot of good to our health. 12. That he failed the exam made him upset. 13. Between the two tall buildings stands our teaching building. 14. What we are learning now will be of great help to our life and work in the future. 15. Do you know the man next to Tom? 16. Please send him to the hospital nearest to your home as soon as possible. 17. We have a dining hall large enough to hold 3, 000 students. 18. He was doing his homework carefully in the classroom at that moment. 19. We planted many trees in our schoolyard last Sunday. 20. He performed incredibly well in the speech contest yesterday. 21. I will never forget what he told me that day. 22. I frequently go to the supermarket. /I go to the supermarket frequently. 23. He is always helping others. 24. We should never treat an old man like that. 25. One is never too old to learn.

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